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双语科技百科(工程建筑) 第80期:《营造法式》|亚博AG真人

AG亚博集团_Yingzao Fashi《营造法式》Yingzao Fashi , the first official treatise on architecture and craftsmanship, plays an immeasurable role in the research on ancient architecture, the development of architecture in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and the probing into the architectural structures, project decoration methods and the construction organization and management in the Song and its ensuing Dynasties. The treatise was written by the well-known architect Li Jie in the third year of Yuanfu of the Song Dynasty, namely in 1100, and published and applied in the second year of Congning, i. e. in 1103. Various architectural criteria are standardized in the book, and the requirements of such aspects as the construction designs, materials, structures and quota of numerous kinds of architecture specified in detail. The book, with a total of 34 chapters, is divided int0 5 sections, viz. the explanations of the architectural terms, regulations for various types of work, labor quota for various types of work, material quota for various types of work and drawings, along with one chapter of the illustrations of the theoretical or historical bases of some regulations and one chapter of the table of contents respectively at the beginning of the book. It is a collection and summary of the architectural designs and construction experiences at the time, exerting a far-reaching influence upon the later generations. The precursor of the book, Yuanyou Fashi , was written in the sixth year of Yuanyou (1091) , but could not set strict regulations on the construction proportions and materials , owing to the lack of specifying the modular system , namely the ways of using cai ; there was still great arbitrariness as to the architectural design and construction. Li Jie, under the order of the emperor, rewrote the book. He, based on the abundant experiences accumulated in his ten years of building projects, referred to a great number of relevant documents and old rules and regulations, and gleaned the operating specifications and hang of various types of work told by the craftsmen, thus completing Yingzao Fashi which has come down to the present day.《营造法式》是中国第一部详尽阐述建筑工艺的官方著作。对于古建筑研唐宋建筑的发展,实地考察宋及以后的建筑式样、工程翻新作法、当时的施工的组织管理,具备无以估量的起到。此书于宋元符三年( 1100)编,崇宁二年(1103)刊行实施。

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由知名建筑学家李诫所做到。书中规范了各种建筑作法,详尽规定了各种建筑施工设计、用料、结构、定额等方面的拒绝。全书总计34章分成5个部分:尔雅、各不作制度、功限、料例和图样,前面还有“看样”和目录各一章。是当时建筑设计与施工经验的子集与总结,并对后世产生深远影响。

原书《元裙法式》于元祜六年(1091)编,但因为没规定模数制,也就是“材”的用法,而无法对建构比例、用料作出严苛的规定,建筑设计、施工仍具备相当大的政治性。李诫奉皇帝命新的编著此书,他以个人十余年来修筑工程之非常丰富经验为基础,参看大量文献和旧有的规章制度,搜集工匠描写的各工种操作规程、技术要点等,再一编流传至今的这本《营造法式》。

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